Mark Wild will join TfL in June, taking over from interim managing director Nick Brown.
Wild is currently special adviser to the minister and secretary of the state government of Victoria. He was also chief executive of Public Transport Victoria, the transport authority based in Melbourne, which is used by the population of six million people.
He has also worked on a number of major projects in London, including the introduction of modern signalling on the Jubilee and Victoria lines.
London’s transport commissioner Mike Brown said Wild would "help us continue the vital modernisation of London’s transport network".
"With our city’s population rising sharply we need to continue to drive forward change and deliver new and better services so that we can support London’s new homes, jobs and economic growth," he added.
Brown thanked his departing namesake for making "a remarkable contribution to London Underground at a crucial time".
"Operational performance and customer service have been significantly improved, and he has led a fundamentally different and positive approach to engaging staff, stakeholders and trade unions to bring about real change. We wish him well in his next role."
It's certainly been a busy time with plenty of strikes to navigate, and the Night Tube almost a year overdue. Transport has become centre ground for mayoral candidates Zac Goldsmith and Sadiq Khan to battle it out over ahead of 5 May election.