Yorkshire skipper Vaughan and Durham paceman Steve Harmison were both left out of the 16-man training squad for the hotly anticipated series against Australia, which starts next month.
However there was a recall for batsman Ian Bell, who missed the recent series against the West Indies, while spinners Graham Swann, Adil Rashid and Monty Panesar were all included.
National selector Geoff Miller said: “The door has not been closed on any player at this stage. Michael Vaughan will, of course, be disappointed not to have been included.
“But I met with Michael recently and he understands that he needs to make runs consistently in county cricket if he is to force his way back into the squad.”
Vaughan’s form has been poor in county cricket this season, making only 159 runs at an average of 19.88.
In contrast Harmison had done everything he could to earn a recall by taking 16 County Championship wickets in his last two matches.
Lancashire all rounder Andrew Flintoff marked his return to the squad after injury with his best batting display of the season, a half century against Hampshire.
The inclusion of Yorkshire spinner Adil Rashid will add pressure to Monty Panesar, whose six wickets this year have come at an average of 87.
ENGLAND ASHES TRAINING SQUAD
Andrew Strauss (captain) (Middx), James Anderson (Lancs), Ian Bell (Warks), Ravi Bopara (Essex), Tim Bresnan (Yorks), Stuart Broad (Notts), Paul Collingwood (Durham), Alastair Cook (Essex), Andrew Flintoff (Lancs), Graham Onions (Durham), Monty Panesar (Northants), Kevin Pietersen (Hants), Matt Prior (Sussex), Adil Rashid (Yorks), Ryan Sidebottom (Notts), Graeme Swann (Notts).