Broad will miss the last match of the one-day series against India and the return tour next month, which compromises five ODI fixtures, as well as the chance to skipper the Twenty20 side in the two fixtures against the West Indies next week.
The Nottinghamshire star suffered a sudden pain in his right arm almost at the point of delivery in the last over of India’s innings during the tied ODI match at Lord’s on Sunday.
England will already be without batsman Eoin Morgan, who is to undergo an operation on his injured shoulder, and will now have to make do without one of their leading strike bowlers.
Broad (inset), 25, also missed the culmination of both England’s Ashes and World Cup campaigns with an abdominal strain and then a cracked rib last winter.
An ECB statement read: “England bowler Stuart Broad will miss the final ODI against India and the NatWest Twenty20 series against West Indies, as well as the ODI leg of the India tour, with a muscle tear within his right shoulder.
“Broad may be fit to join the England squad for the Twenty20 fixture scheduled for October 29 in Kolkata.”
ECB chief medical officer Nick Peirce added: “Stuart has a muscle tear within his shoulder and will require an initial period of rest and rehabilitation.
“Exact timescales will be determined in due course, but he is likely to be ruled out of cricket for a number of weeks.”
Meanwhile, spinner Graeme Swann was the only England player to be named in International Cricket Council’s one-day international team of the year.
The ICC’s team also features four members of India’s world-beating line-up, two from the World Cup finalists Sri Lanka, two from South Africa, and one each from Pakistan and Australia.