ANALYSIS | JAPANESE FIRMS COUNT COST OF CORPORATE DISASTERS

Sony
News that an additional 25m people could have had their details stolen is a disaster in terms of damage limitation. One firm says the cost of cyber attacks averages $318 a user – in this case $32bn. It is likely costs will tail off as numbers get into millions but this is still a vast clean-up operation.
Potential cost: $32bn

Toyota
The car manufacturer had an annus horribilis last year, announcing it would have to recall millions of its cars over safety fears. Analysts say the recall could cost it up to $2bn in lost output and sales. The damage to the reputation of the world’s largest carmaker could have an even higher value.
Potential cost: $2bn

TEPCO
Japanese nuclear plant TEPCO suffered irreparable damage to both its balance sheet and reputation after the deadly earthquake. The cost to replace each of its four reactors is estimated at around $100bn each and it will have to pay in the region of $25bn in compensation to residents of the surrounding area.
Potential cost: $425bn (at least)