Dettori was ruled out last week when a broken ankle prematurely ended his year but Thierry Jarnet stood in as Head-Maarek’s unbeaten three-year-old beat favourite Orfevre by five lengths.
Victory saw Treve become the first horse since 2008 to scoop the French Oaks, the Prix Vermeille and the Arc in the same season.
“I want to say thank you to Frankie Dettori as he rode an amazing race on her in the Prix Vermeille. I said to save her for today and he did,” said Head Maarek, celebrating her second Arc success.
“A big kiss and thank you to Frankie, I am sorry he is not here. She [Treve] won so well, the way she won was incredible. I am surprised how easily she won.
“I thought she had six gears, but she put the seventh one on.”
After a slow start the filly, owned by Sheikh Joann Al-Thani, pulled away on the turn for home and Jarnet was able to ease off well before crossing the line for the £2.2m prize.
Japanese Orfevre, also runner-up last year, was followed by Intello, Kizuna and Penglai Pavilion.