Apple, Microsoft and Samsung are "moving in the wrong direction" when it comes to sustainable product design according to Greenpeace, in a major new study of the world's biggest tech brands and their impact on the environment.
Apple was the Silicon Valley firm to be rated the highest when it comes to how green it is, behind only Fairphone, a Netherlands based smartphone maker which aims to be 100 per cent fair.
The ranking of 17 tech firms is based on energy, resource and chemicals used in making their products and services, and each company is given a grade between A and F. The majority of a device's energy footprint - as much as 80 per cent - comes from the manufacturing process.
Chinese smartphone makers Oppo, Vivo and Xiaomi, were found to be failing to keep up with green commitments on all three counts, the research found, ranking the lowest.
Greenpeace singled out Samsung, the biggest manufacturer of smarphones in the world for its lack of commitment to renewable energy. Just one per cent of its energy is from renewables last year. It scored a D minus.
And Amazon, rated F alongside the Chinese firms, was lambasted over its lack of transparency.
"While Amazon is willing to talk about its recent renewable energy deals, the company provides few details on its sourcing of recycled materials that are going into its devices, nor does it publish any restrictions on hazardous chemicals in its devices or being used in its supply chain as other leading electronics brands provide," said the report.
How green are the world's biggest tech brands?