Labour gained a total of 30 extra parliamentary seats after the vote, with Corbyn's own role dramatically strengthened by the results.
The Islington North MP could have been facing a third leadership election in as many years had Labour been condemned to a resounding defeat.
But despite failing to return enough MPs to form a government, the Corbyn has responded by claiming he could still become Prime Minister.
"This is still on. Absolutely," Corbyn told the Sunday Mirror.
And speaking on the BBC's Andrew Marr Show, he added that Labour would table a "substantial" amendment to any Queen's Speech from May, putting forward the party's position on Brexit.
"We will put forward a position in which we negotiate tariff-free access to the European market and legislate after that," Corbyn said.
Labour's unexpected performance at the election has seen several former rebels back Corbyn. Chuka Umunna and Angela Eagle are among the senior MPs to have indicated a willingness to serve in the shadow cabinet.
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However, others remain unconvinced - former shadow chancellor Chris Leslie told BBC Radio this weekend the party should not pretend it had secured a victory.
"It's good as far as it's gone, but it's not good enough," Leslie said, adding that Labour had missed an "open goal" by failing to secure a majority.
"You've got to convince [voters] of your credibility and that you can move from protesting about government to being in government," he said.