The cost of major disasters to the world reached the highest level since 2012 last year, almost doubling the damage sustained in the previous year.
Natural disasters and man-made destruction cost the world $175bn (£139bn) in 2016, according to reinsurance giant Swiss Re. This was 85 per cent higher than 2015 damage as the toll from natural disasters more than doubled.
Global insured losses jumped back to average levels at just below a third of total damage, at $54bn. This meant the gap between losses and the amount insured (known as the protection gap) was $121bn.
Man-made disasters were responsible for some $8bn of the losses, a 28 per cent fall from 2015.
North America was responsible for more than half of the insured losses, with a high take-up of insurance and multiple severe storms during the year.
The costliest individual storm was an unlikely hailstorm in Texas, which caused $3.5bn of damage as tennis ball-sized blocks of ice damaged homes and cars.
Some of the biggest damage was wrought by earthquakes around the world, including in Japan, Ecuador, Tanzania, Italy and New Zealand.
Meanwhile the Canadian wildfires in Saskatchewan province caused the biggest insurance losses ever for the country, after multiple oil sands production facilities were destroyed or had to be stop working for months.
The death toll for disaster events reached 11,000, Swiss Re estimates, including 700 people killed mainly in poverty-stricken Haiti by Hurricane Matthew.