The 48-year-old will take control of European football's governing body until 2019, after routing rival Michael van Praag by 42 votes to 13 at the election in Athens.
Ceferin has worked in football for over a decade and as head of the Slovenian FA since 2011, but has remained relatively unknown outside of his home country.
Born into a powerful family, Ceferin trained as a lawyer and is a partner in his father's firm.
He is thought to have cleaned up at the vote due to his positioning as a moderating presence between disgruntled smaller associations and powerful bigger associations whose clubs dominate in the Champions League.
Here's where he stands on the key issues.
1. European Super League
The prospect of Europe's biggest powers ditching Uefa to form their own European Super League has resurfaced amidst agitating from the federation's biggest clubs.
A breakaway league would devastate Uefa's power, finances and credibility. Ceferin says he will "do everything that the Super League never happens" and claimed it would lead to "war between Uefa and the clubs".
2. Champions League reforms
A self-styled "robin hood of Uefa" according to a quote provided to Turkish media, Ceferin has committed to sticking up for mid-sized and smaller associations such as his own Slovenian FA against the traditional powerhouses on the continent whose club's pushes for increased power resulted in Uefa agreeing to promise its top four associations four places in the Champions League group stage.
Although he hasn't promised to reverse the changes, Ceferin has insisted there should have been greater consultation with clubs before they were introduced and has acknowledged the frustrations from smaller nations — such as Scotland where SPFL chief Neil Doncaster described the changes as leading towards "an NFL-style closed-shop system".
3. European Championship format
Despite receiving criticisms over its long and unwieldy group stage, Ceferin wants to keep the new 24-team European Championship format debuted in France for the first time this summer. Another popular policy amongst smaller associations.
As a relatively fresh faced new kid on the block, Ceferin has styled himself as untouched by the corruption scandals that brought down former president Platini. "I think a lot has to change," he has said. "There needs to be a fresh wind and I'm the right guy."
So far, however, his policies have been typically vague for a football administrator and limited to lines such as "being a role model in good governance and transparency".
5. Financial Fair Play
Uefa's financial fair play (FFP) rules, designed to push clubs to a more sustainable model, have been relaxed in recent years to allow clubs to spend big if they can demonstrate a long-term business plan.
Ceferin, however, may look to roll back such leniency. "FFP should be enforced more strongly because the gap between rich ones and poor ones is wider and wider," ha said following his election. "We have a lot to do."