Men are more likely to secure a promotion than their female colleagues, new research has found, in another piece of the gender pay gap puzzle.
Analysis of 60,000 employees by the Chartered Management Institute (CMI) shows 14 per cent of men in top management roles scooped a promotion last year, compared to just 10 per cent of women in similar positions.
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The difference in rates of promotion even held after accounting for experience. Of managers who have been with the same company for at least five years, 47 per cent of men had been promoted compared to 39 per cent of women.
Salaries were also higher for male managers, at an average of £38,800 compared to £29,900 for women, men were more likely to receive a bonus and, where they did, it was typically twice the size of those dished out to women.
Ann Francke, chief executive of the CMI said: "Promoting men ahead of women is keeping us all back ... Employers need to get on board with reporting on their recruitment and promotion policies and how much they pay men and women."
The pay gap between managers was lowest in London, with a difference of 17 per cent, and highest in Scotland were men in top positions took home an extra 29 per cent.
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The findings come on the same day influential think tank the Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) publishes new research into the pay penalty women are hit with for taking time off work to have children.
The body calculated that every year out of work results in a two per cent fall in hourly wages when women return to the workforce. Moreover, after coming back to work after maternity leave, pay grows significantly slower for women than men, resulting in a gender pay gap of 33 per cent after 12 years.
Last year the gender pay gap for full-time employees was a record low 9.4 per cent according to the Office for National Statistics (ONS). For part-time staff, women actually earn more than men, however women are three-times as likely to be employed part-time as men, dragging their median annual earnings down. As part of government efforts to bring down the gap, big firms will be required to start publishing their company wide pay ratios no later than April 2018.