The former Arsenal defender will not be allowed to take part in any football activity after former representative Sebastien Boisseau requested Fifa take action over a contractual dispute dating back nearly three years.
Sunderland signed Eboue on a short-term deal earlier this month, but the 32-year old Ivory Coast international has yet to appear for Sam Allardyce's side. He had been out of contract since leaving Galatasaray in the summer.
In July 201,3 Fifa ordered Eboue pay Boisseau an amount owed to him based on the agreement between the pair and then fined him 30,000 Swiss francs in September the following year for failing to comply.
Following a final grace period of 120 days, Boisseau asked football's governing body to implement a ban on the player - action he was entitled to according to Fifa regulation.
An appeal from Eboue at the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) was dismissed.
A Fifa statement read: "Emmanuel Eboué, who has represented Côte d’Ivoire and is currently registered for the English club Sunderland A.F.C., is to serve a ban on taking part in any football-related activity that will last for one year or until he pays the total outstanding amount owed to his former agent if this occurs before the one-year ban has elapsed."